Radical Equality: 1842-1846

Graduation Standards

Although these lessons will not provide a full understanding of all of the MA Curriculum Frameworks Standards, the goals, activities, and legacies of the Northampton Association link directly with the standards listed below. We annotated (in italics) some specific connections between standards and this exhibit.

You can find more information on the Massachusetts Social Science & History Curriculum Frameworks, on our main site. KEY TO STRANDS : H = History; C = Civics; E = Economics

3rd Grade Skills Standards

  1. Explain the meaning of time periods or dates in historical narratives (decade, century, 1600s, 1776) and use them correctly in speaking and writing. (H)
  2. Observe visual sources such as historic paintings, photographs, or illustrations that accompany historical narratives, and describe details such as clothing, setting, or action. (H)
  3. Observe and describe local or regional historic artifacts and sites and generate questions about their function, construction, and significance. (H)

5th Grade Standards

5.24: Describe the basic political principles of American democracy and explain how the Constitution and the Bill of Rights reflect and preserve these principles.
  1. individual rights and responsibilities
  2. equality
  3. the rule of law
  4. limited government
  5. representative democracy
5.19: Identify the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, including its date, its primary author (John Adams), and the basic rights it gives to citizens of the Commonwealth.
5.35: Identify the key issues that contributed to the onset of the Civil War.
  1. debate over slavery (and westward expansion).
  2. diverging economic interests

Also include: Education; character of constitutional government. Biography, genre-writing (letters, contract). Mayflower Compact.

8th-12th Grade Standards

USI.11 Describe the purpose and functions of government. (H, C)
USI.14 Explain the characteristics of American democracy, including the concepts of popular sovereignty and constitutional government, which includes representative institutions, federalism, separation of powers, shared powers, checks and balances, and individual rights. (H, C)
USI.19 Explain the rights and the responsibilities of citizenship and describe how a democracy provides opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process through elections, political parties, and interest groups. (H, C)
The NAEI is a great microcosm to look at the basic ideas of a constitution-based government. Through the Association students can look at the possibilities and limitations of democracy. Students can explore how citizens seek to create change in society. (See [permalink href=”13″]Democracy[/permalink] Section)
USI.23 Analyze the rising levels of political participation and the expansion of suffrage in antebellum America. (C, H)
USI.24 Describe the election of 1828, the importance of Jacksonian democracy, and Jackson’s actions as President. (H)
The utopian communitarian moment of the 1840s was directly connected to the expansion of democracy and political participation in the 1830s and 40s. One of the Association’s goals was to expand democratic participation within their own community. (See [permalink href=”13″]Democracy[/permalink] Section)
USI.27 Explain the importance of the Transportation Revolution of the 19th century (the building of canals, roads, bridges, turnpikes, steamboats, and railroads), including the stimulus it provided to the growth of a market economy. (H, E)
USI.28 Explain the emergence and impact of the textile industry in New England and industrial growth generally throughout antebellum America. (H, E)
  1. the technological improvements and inventions that contributed to industrial growth
  2. the causes and impact of the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to America in the 1840s and 1850s
  3. the rise of a business class of merchants and manufacturers
  4. the roles of women in New England textile factories
Many of the Association’s goals and issues were directly related to their own industry and the larger industrial issues in American society. The Panic of 1837 had a direct effect on New England farms and is one reason why people like the Stetson’s were looking for a new life. The Market Revolution and cash cropping in the Old Northwest also led to a decline in viable farming in New England. At its roots, the Association attempted to deal with issues of industry including slave and wage labor. Their choice to grow silk was both practical and moral—selecting to stay away from textile production and its cotton connection. (see [permalink href=”14″]Industry[/permalink] section)
USI.29 Describe the rapid growth of slavery in the South after 1800 and analyze slave life and resistance on plantations and farms across the South, as well as the impact of the cotton gin on the economics of slavery and Southern agriculture. (H)
The growth of cotton production and the use of slave labor were issues central to the Association. They were Garrisonian abolitionist that believed in the immediate emancipation of slavery. They chose their industry based on the desire to separate themselves from the slave labor economy. They hosted speakers including William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass. Sojourner Truth lived at the Association for a period of time. Most of the members were previously involved in abolitionism and sought the community as a place of common.
USI.30 Summarize the growth of the American education system and Horace Mann’s campaign for free compulsory public education. (H)
One of the main reasons why the Stetsons chose to move the NAEI was for the educational opportunities that it provided for their children. The learning by doing model explained and referenced in the family letters was directly related to the ideas of Horace Mann and the new thinking about education.
USI.31 Describe the formation of the abolitionist movement, the roles of various abolitionists, and the response of southerners and northerners to abolitionism. (H)
  1. Frederick Douglass
  2. William Lloyd Garrison
  3. Sojourner Truth
  4. Harriet Tubman
  5. Theodore Weld
The NAEI was a Garrisonian Abolitionist community. They continually hosted abolitionist speakers such as William Lloyd Garrison and Frederick Douglass. Sojourner Truth was a member of the Association and began some of her abolitionist activism in Northampton.
USI.32 Describe important religious trends that shaped antebellum America. (H)
  1. the increase in the number of Protestant denominations
  2. the Second Great Awakening
  3. the influence of these trends on the reaction of Protestants to the growth of Catholic immigration
NAEI was above all a religious-based community. They were nonsectarian in their membership. They also supported the idea of “comeouterism”—encouraging Protestants to leave their churches if they did not openly support abolitionism. Lastly, at their core, members believed in moral righteousness as a direct result of their faith and were a clear example of the reform spirit started by the Second Great Awakening. (See [permalink href=”71″]Religion[/permalink] section)
USI.33 Analyze the goals and effect of the antebellum women’s suffrage movement. (H)the 1848 Seneca Falls convention
  1. Susan B. Anthony
  2. Margaret Fuller
  3. Lucretia Mott
  4. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
The women’s suffrage movement of the mid-19th century was directly connected to the abolitionist movement. The involvement of women in the abolitionist movement sparked activism for women’s rights and divided the abolitionist movement. Women at the Association were involved in the type of activism that resulted in the women’s suffrage movement. Women at the Association were given the right to vote on community affairs. Lastly, Almira Stetson makes references to Margaret Fuller, women’s education, and her desire to emulate these women in her education and career.
USI.34 Analyze the emergence of the Transcendentalist movement through the writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. (H)
Some of the utopian communities were Transcendentalist communities. The Northampton Association had regular communication with Brook Farm and other communitarian groups.
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