Radical Equality: 1842-1846


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Panic of 1837 - The Panic of 1837 was the result of many events including Andrew Jackson’s sabotage of the Bank of the United States. President Jackson ordered the withdrawal of all federal funds from the Bank and when it closed, credit collapsed.
Party nominating convention - In the 1830s political parties began to hold nominating conventions. Party politicians and voters would gather in large meeting halls to nominate the candidate for the party. Prior to nominating conventions, state legislature or exclusive caucuses would choose candidates without public consultation.
Popular campaigning - Political campaigns in the 1830s and 40s involved parades with floats, marching bands, and large rallies. Candidates would also appeal to large audiences by personally attacking opponents.
Popular election of electors - By the 1830s, the vast majority of states stopped having the state legislatures elect presidential electors and instead allowed their voters to choose electors.
Populist movement - A social movement that is popular among common people.
Prison reform - In Pennsylvania, during the 1840s, new prisons were built called penitentiaries. They experimented with solitary confinement to force people to self reflect on their sins and to repent. They reflected the major beliefs of the reform movements that discipline and structure would lead to moral improvement.
Prudence Crandall - In 1833, Prudence Crandall, a Quaker schoolteacher in Connecticut, admitted an African-American student to her private school. Townspeople protested greatly and Crandall was arrested. Her case became an inspiration for abolitionists across New England.